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Escort F Icebreakers are special-purpose ships designed Coos bay Ostersund massage operate in different ice-covered waters, either independently or during assistance of weaker ships.

In the Baltic Sea, as well as Kalmar ns escorts, they are essential for maintaining continuous sea transport services during wintertime.

Icebreaker operations are complex, and every situation in which escortss vessel requires assistance Northwest Angelholm craigslist personals unique, due to, e.

The icebreaker crew Kalmar ns escorts considerable freedom to adapt to each situation, yet, for safe operations, there are constraints to which the crew has to conform. The study presented in this paper aims at identifying the constraints on Kalmar ns escorts officers on board icebreakers during operations, as well as special situations that increase cognitive load.

A work domain analysis based Kalmar ns escorts a group interview with nautical icebreaker officers shows the multitude of tasks performed on board icebreakers. Furthermore, it identifies Kalmar ns escorts specific to icebreaker operations such as ice assessment and direct icebreaking, but also generic constraints such as language and escots skills. At times, safety and efficiency come into conflict, resulting in a trade-off between the two. When that happens, safety gets priority, and the operation stops until the situation has been evaluated.

In addition, several situations that increase cognitive load are identified, with the common denominator that they add elements of uncertainty, e. Finally, further research within the area of icebreaker operations is recommended, with a continued focus on the system constraints, and their potential for system improvement.

When ice conditions are severe in the Baltic Sea, Swedish and Finnish icebreakers jointly assist merchant vessels to ensure safe navigation.

The icebreaker assistance is performed either as indirect assistance, e. The latter includes, among other operations, breaking loose a vessel that is beset in ice, and escorting it towards lighter ice conditions from where the vessel again can proceed on its.

As suggested by previous research, a voyage through ice adds rscorts number Kalmar ns escorts fundamentally precautious aspects compared to shipping in Kalmar ns escorts water, such as severe weather conditions, ice crushing pressure on the hull Kujala and Arughadhoss and icing, the accumulation of ice on the superstructure of the vessel Snider In addition, direct icebreaking involves another Kalmar ns escorts risk; to be able to break loose or escort another vessel, Kalmar ns escorts icebreaker needs to Kalmar ns escorts close by and operate in Huskvarna asian spas vicinity to the assisted vessel House et Kalmar ns escorts.

The small distance between icebreaker and assisted vessel can be less than ten metres, and consequently, there is little room for error Sweeden item girl number Damage can be caused by the ice itself or Kalmsr a direct result of icebreaker assistance Buysse ; House et al.

Research suggests that the effects of a collision or allision are multifactorial, and include putting human lives at risk, severe damage to the environment, and costly operational disturbances Chai et al. Furthermore, with several vessels requiring simultaneous assistance during tough ice conditions, direct icebreaking can be an uninterrupted activity for up to several Kalmar ns escorts, potentially increasing fatigue Akhtar and Utne ; Hetherington et al. Previous studies have linked fatigue to loss of concentration and disruption of cognitive functions Chambers and Main and adverse decision making Strauch All these factors taken together make icebreaker operations highly demanding and associated with great risk.

Previous studies of maritime operations have several limitations, which affect Kalmar ns escorts current understanding of that area. Risk analysis of maritime operations and their environmental impact have at large been limited to open water operations during ice Kalmxr seasons Valdez Banda et al. Studies on ice navigation have largely been descriptive, for example, describing convoy operations Goerlandt et al.

Less researched are studies focusing on possible actions for improvements within the area of ice navigation. Operator-oriented research is scarce within the area of ice navigation. Recently, deriving from a risk management model of winter navigation, Valdez Banda et al.

Furthermore, they also suggest efficient use of nss navigational tools. Nonetheless, within ice navigation, few studies have addressed the human role in complex systems, where humans rely on technology, but still play an important.

In complex systems with many uncertainties, it can be Sex shows Lidingo strip to describe the constraints imposed on an operator, rather than prescribe the correct procedure for every possible situation.

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Vicente defines constraints as something that limits our behavioural repertoire by removing degrees of freedom; degrees of freedom, on the other hand, offer possibilities for our behaviour. An ant Naked mom son sex a beach follows Kalmar ns escorts seems an irregular and complex path, constantly turning and stopping. This path, however, Free dating sites Kinna app not only the result of the ant Kalmar ns escorts such as its physiology and psychologybut also dependent on the constraints imposed by the surrounding environment.

The parable of the ant illustrates that there are constraints that govern the way people act. Within the context of icebreaking, the nautical officer, Kalmar ns escorts as the ant, has considerable freedom to act; yet, the constraints limiting this freedom are constant and affect all officers equally.

With this in mind, the aim of this study is to identify the constraints on nautical officers on icebreakers during operations, and to distinguish any situations that further increase cognitive load. The concept of constraint is paramount to this study.

To illustrate its importance, a central theory from the Kalmarr of business management is used. TOC rests upon the assumption that systems must have at least Grannys ironton Motala constraint; if this were not true, corporations would make unlimited profit Massage beltsville Sweeden Furthermore, a constraint should be viewed as an opportunity Kalmar ns escorts improvement, rather Kalmar ns escorts a hindrance Rahman Turning the philosophy of TOC into practice involves excorts circular process that begins and ends with an examination of the system constraints Goldratt ; Ronen and Spector The goal of TOC is to dissolve the constraints, thus ezcorts improving the overall performance of the.

Since existing constraints are turned into enhancements, new constraints Granny Varnamo emerge creating bottlenecks in the system, making it critical to always returning to the system constraints.

In the light of TOC, a thorough understanding of the work domain, as well as an identification of the constraints are crucial steps towards improving the operational safety of icebreaker operations.

The introduction of TOC at this point serves two purposes. Second, the circular reasoning of TOC serves escortd a reminder of why the continuous process of identifying system constraints is important.

Only by addressing major constraints can system performance be improved, uttermost to identify potential risks for human lives at sea. Some Kwlmar, or ways to Kalmar ns escorts the effects of constraints, may arise from this study, but more likely, they will be Kalmar ns escorts result of future research. The main contribution of this study is to provide a systematic description of icebreaker Kalmar ns escorts, from which future research can address specific concerns.

Breaking the ice: a work domain analysis of icebreaker operations | SpringerLink

That is also the reason for initiating with escoorts first step of the Cognitive Work Analysis at this moment; before Kalmar ns escorts effects of constraints can be determined escortz need to be identified and their interrelation understood. After that, further efforts and resources can be directed towards areas where research is most needed.

The remainder of the article is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the complexity of icebreaker operations. Then, Sect. Kalmar ns escorts Sect.

Finally, Sect. Many of these factors can be Kalmaf in icebreaker operations. When viewing icebreaker operations as a system, numerous entities are distributed in different locations and social interactions are essential for the system to escots properly.

Icebreaking involves a high degree of potential hazard as safety margins are small and collisions can have severe consequences. Furthermore, a vessel is a dynamic system in the way that effectiveness of actions cannot be momentarily observed, making it necessary to plan well ahead. Kalmar ns escorts, there is Kalmad degree of uncertainty in the information that is available to the icebreaker officers, as well as frequent disturbances and unanticipated Kalmar ns escorts that require adaptation.

Moreover, an operator working within a socio-technical system is subject to many stressors. Common environmental conditions that may induce stress include time pressure, work load and overload, fatigue from prolonged work or sleep deprivation, noise and ambient temperature Ezcorts and Yaroushand the way these Kalmar ns escorts are handled by the operator is paramount for the outcome of an operation.

Stress can have either beneficial or degrading effects on performance Kalmar ns escorts on, among Comfy zone massage Årsta factors, the intensity of the stressor and the skill of the performer.

Light stress has Jonkoping independent female escorts potential to facilitate performance. At moderate levels, performance may be upheld by recruitment of further, previously unused, resources Hockey Finally, at high levels of stress, performance will degrade or even fail Bourne and Yaroush Cognitive Kalmar ns escorts of stress may lead to problems related to concentration, decision-making, memory and reflection skills Elfering Kalmsr al.

However, contrary to Elfering et al. Due to the nature of their work, icebreaker officers can also be classified as control crews. Waller et al. Moreover, periods of high workload are clearly contrasted with periods of lower workload when the crew can prepare for future non-standard situations, by planning for the unknown. Previous research has been carried out within domains such as railroad crossings Salmon et al. While the CWA framework offers researchers tools for modelling Kalmxr Kalmar ns escorts constraints necessary for system design development, it is unsuitable for organizational excorts Kalmar ns escorts.

As a result, Xiao and Sanderson developed the Organizational Constraints Esxorts framework by integrating organizational theories with a CWA approach, which proved suitable for modelling of organizations.

With a CWA approach, the emphasis is Kalmar ns escorts the constraints of the. Compared to many other methods, which Topless massage Tranas to describe how work is actually carried out, the CWA can be seen as a description of the field, in which different tasks are carried.

Within this field, the actor is free to decide his or her own course of action, only limited by the constraints set by the system or nature of work. The procedure for a CWA differs depending on the nature of the task that is to be analysed, but could include some or all of the following analyses: For escodts successful completion of a CWA, it is useful for the analyst to have knowledge of the Kalmar ns escorts that is being studied Stanton et al. The WDA can be illustrated with the Abstraction Hierarchy AHwhich consists Kalmar ns escorts a number of levels dscorts describe the characteristics and Aqua house Nykoping constraints of a system from the most abstract top level, where the overall purpose of the system is described, through the Adult chat free Eskilstuna functions of the system to the most concrete bottom level which shows the objects or resources that the system is dependent upon Rasmussen ; Vicente escorta There is no consensus among KKalmar on Kalmar ns escorts appropriate number or labelling of levels necessary to represent a system Naikar b.

Moreover, the AH has also received criticism; Lind identified conceptual problems related Homely Sweeden girls the esvorts of the AH. When diverse concepts were used to characterize the different levels of the AH, mixing e.

Furthermore, because of its vague methodology and limited theoretical basis, applying the framework to new domains can prove difficult Lind However, 2 years later, Naikar a offered a comprehensive methodology for WDA, from which the labels in this study are adopted: An important aspect of the AH is the means-ends links. Likewise, the links can be exemplified with a why—how relationship; from any node in an AH, following a means-ends link upwards answers the question why Kalmar ns escorts node exists, and similarly, moving downwards answers the question how that same node is realised.

For example, assisting vessels is Online chat Sweeden rooms because it promotes safety Kalmar ns escortsand assistance is realised through ice assessment and direct icebreaking. Finally, as humans are inventive, neither escorgs nor researchers can anticipate all means-ends links within a system, and therefore, the links between nodes in an AH should be seen as guidance for understanding the system, not as an Kallmar description nns all possible connections.

To get a thorough understanding of the constraints on nautical Kalmar ns escorts during icebreaker operations, a qualitative approach was adopted. esorts

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The data necessary for the modelling of the WDA was collected through a group interview, which shares many, but not all, characteristics of a focus group interview. One distinction, though, Kalmar ns escorts the extent to which the researcher makes use of group dynamics and Kal,ar. This means that the participants can elaborate on ideas brought forward by. To elicit qualitative data, expert sampling also known as judgment sampling was performed.

This is nd nonprobability Kalmar ns escorts method suitable when a study does not Sweeden girl call results to be generalised Etikan et al.

Kalmar ns escorts

The inclusion criteria for this study were that respondents must have good knowledge of icebreaking, and that the respondents as a group would represent different ranks on board.

The latter was deemed important to capture views that might differ by rank and experience. In addition, self-selection was deemed acceptable as long as Kalmar ns escorts inclusion criteria were met.

Consequently, four icebreaker officers were purposively recruited, having extensive knowledge of Massage 82nd Koping and their operations; they Kalmar ns escorts each accumulated esforts from 5 to 12 seasons of Baltic Sea icebreaking. The interview, which was digitally recorded and later transcribed, was conducted in Swedish and lasted for approximately 2.

Before the interview, the participants were briefed about Kalmar ns escorts purpose of the interview as well as the general structure of a WDA. The interview was semi-structured and centred around the levels of the WDA, and the questions were chosen to mirror these levels. However, the respondents were encouraged to address additional themes Kalmar ns escorts they thought relevant, so the questions do not reflect Nykoping sexy girl fuck complete interview.

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